18/1/10

A PALEO PERSPECTIVE...ON ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE

 


NOAA Satellite and Information Service

NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER

U.S. DEPARTAMENT OF COMMERCE

A Final Word

The study of abrupt change is still in its infancy; while new data are published every month, the paleo record is still incomplete. Additional high-resolution, well-dated proxy records are needed from around the globe to fill in gaps in our understanding. As definitions of abrupt change are being refined, scientists continue to pose hypotheses regarding mechanisms, but only a few of these mechanisms have been tested using climate models. Even for one of the best known abrupt change events, the Younger Dryas, neither the global extent of temperature or precipitation change nor the accompanying changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric trace gases are well known. The next decade is sure to bring many new developments on this topic.

Even from the proxy data that exist, one thing is relatively certain: our climate system is not always well-behaved. It can, and often does, change in surprising ways. Positive feedbacks are a key ingredient for this behavior, amplifying a small change or perturbation in the climate system. Paleo records also show that abrupt changes happen during both glacial and interglacial periods, although they may take on different characteristics when large ice sheets exist on Earth. During the Holocene, for example, regional-scale droughts have been very important, while weakening of the meridional overturning circulation had consequences on the hemispheric-to-global scale during the last glacial period.
The perspective of the paleo record suggests that future climate change will also contain some surprises. Currently, global mean temperature is rising due to emissions of greenhouse gases by humans (see the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming). It is possible that this climate perturbation will be amplified by some of the positive feedbacks that operated during past abrupt events. The Arctic, for example, might become a locus of abrupt change due to the ice-albedo feedback (Holland et al., 2006).

Should I Worry?

It is important not to be fatalistic about the threats posed by abrupt climate change.

At this point, we know that abrupt climate change is a reality. It has happened before and will happen again. How and why it happened in the past are still open questions, as are how, why, and when it might happen in the future. The information found in natural archives of climate and environmental change such as ice cores, lake and ocean sediments, tree rings, and other proxies can be of profound benefit to society in understanding and predicting future climate change.
The goal of the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology is to provide easy access to high quality scientific information derived from rigorous studies of past climate changes. We believe, as do most climate scientists, that the topic of abrupt climate change is worthy of further study, and needs more information before predictions can be made about future events. Several national and international initiatives, such as the U.S. Climate Change Science Plan, have targeted this topic as a priority for scientific research.

 

38 comentarios:

  1. These are generally short phrase loans that do supply you meet your fiscal
    difficulties within a preferred distinct time period. Taking into consideration time limitations these loans are specifically developed above an
    obligation zero cost platform. As such, these are kept entirely 100 % free from credential checksums. Difficulties such as defaults, arrears, bankruptcy, CCJs and even IVAs are not considered here. Further, there are also no collaterals linked with these loans. There is minimal paper perform necessary on the element of borrower. There are also no hidden or further documentation or faxing necessary right here. Applying for these loans is also incredibly convenient. People just demand filling an web based type and once this gets authorized money is received inside 24 hours time frame. These loans are often supplied under convenient terms and situations. The common basic applicant criteria here is that they will need to be a UK resident and of 18 years of age.
    Here is my weblog translatis.eu

    ResponderEliminar
  2. These are essentially brief phrase loans that do deliver you meet your
    fiscal challenges within a desired certain time period.

    Taking into consideration time limitations these loans are especially created above
    an obligation zero cost platform. As such, these are kept fully totally free from credential
    checksums. Problems such as defaults, arrears, bankruptcy, CCJs and even IVAs are not regarded as here.
    Additional, there are also no collaterals connected
    with these loans. There is minimal paper function essential on the part of borrower.
    There are also no hidden or added documentation or faxing needed
    right here. Applying for these loans is also exceptionally hassle-free.
    People just need filling an on line type and as soon as this gets authorized cash
    is received within 24 hours time frame. These loans are
    often supplied under handy terms and conditions. The general simple applicant criteria right here is
    that they will need to be a UK resident and of 18 years of age.
    Review my website partnersforhisglory.org

    ResponderEliminar
  3. These are fundamentally brief phrase loans that do offer you meet your fiscal
    challenges inside a desired precise time period. Thinking of time limitations these
    loans are especially made above an obligation no cost platform.
    As such, these are kept entirely free of charge from credential checksums.

    Issues such as defaults, arrears, bankruptcy, CCJs and even IVAs are not regarded here.
    Further, there are also no collaterals linked with these
    loans. There is minimal paper perform expected on the aspect of borrower.
    There are also no hidden or extra documentation or faxing expected right here.
    Applying for these loans is also very practical. Consumers only require filling an on line type and as soon as this gets authorized money is
    received inside 24 hours time frame. These loans are
    frequently supplied below practical terms and conditions.

    The common standard applicant criteria right here is that they ought to be
    a UK resident and of 18 years of age.
    Here is my web blog : travelsintype.com

    ResponderEliminar
  4. These are fundamentally brief phrase loans that do offer you
    meet your fiscal challenges within a desired precise time
    period. Thinking of time limitations these loans are specifically intended above an obligation free
    of charge platform. As such, these are kept completely free from credential checksums.

    Challenges such as defaults, arrears, bankruptcy, CCJs and even IVAs are not regarded as right here.
    Further, there are also no collaterals related with these loans.
    There is minimal paper function essential on the element of borrower.
    There are also no hidden or extra documentation or faxing necessary right here.

    Applying for these loans is also quite convenient.
    Folks just need filling an on the net form and when this gets
    approved money is received inside 24 hours time frame. These loans are typically offered beneath practical terms and circumstances.
    The common simple applicant criteria right here is that they
    should really be a UK resident and of 18 years
    of age.
    My website > click

    ResponderEliminar
  5. These are generally short term loans that do present you meet your fiscal matters within a desired certain time period.
    Considering time limitations these loans are particularly designed above an obligation totally free
    platform. As such, these are kept completely cost-free from credential checksums.
    Difficulties such as defaults, arrears, bankruptcy, CCJs and even
    IVAs are not considered right here. Further, there are also no collaterals associated with these loans.
    There is minimal paper perform expected on the part
    of borrower. There are also no hidden or further documentation or faxing necessary right here.
    Applying for these loans is also really handy. Many people only require
    filling an online type and as soon as this gets authorized cash is received within 24 hours time frame.
    These loans are normally supplied below convenient terms and situations.
    The general fundamental applicant criteria right here is that they should really be
    a UK resident and of 18 years of age.
    Also see my website - click here

    ResponderEliminar
  6. It is crucial that you have complete privacy and no anxiety about your kids or other problems.
    It's also an emotional need- this is one of the major ways that you can make him feel that he belongs. Taking a break from thrusting is another effective strategy on how to last long in bed.
    Also visit my page telefonsex

    ResponderEliminar
  7. You should begin by controlling your behavior and then look for ways to distract yourself from fantasizing.
    When you=re at the PX, pick up a few affectionate or amusing cards,
    and then send them at random moments. Of course most of those women who talked
    for "free" were actually like me, phone hostesses who were getting paid to field calls from men, establish regular phone relationships when we could, and above all, keep the
    men on the line.

    Check out my site ... Telefonsex

    ResponderEliminar
  8. As the temperature increases, air can hold more water vapor.

    Manufacture's manual can be referred in case of any problem regarding the switch on the vaporizer. Besides this, the boiling point of aluminum is considered to be around 2519C and hence it can't radiate any such
    items or substances.

    Review my site; portable vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  9. Excess water that was not picked up in the process drains from the bottom of
    the unit. In conclusion it is a need for clear phone users I
    do not know how to develop a consolidated Bluetooth. A vaporizer will be
    the best thing since sliced bread.

    ResponderEliminar
  10. (v) Essential oil is not, at all, oily, but makes your eyes,
    water as soon as smelled or sniffed. Spray on bed linens or bathe in lavender oils or soap to reduce stress
    prior to bedtime. One of the best places to find casual sex partners is online.


    my web site vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  11. Vaporizers though are designed to heat but not burn the herbs and the best
    t vaporizers have accurate temperature controls to maximize the vapors released without
    releasing any smoke. He claims that these two realizations
    crystallized in his thoughts just how easy it was to stop and so then enabled him to observe
    an overwhelming need to clarify his technique to as many
    people who smoke as possible. You might not like one or the other one would be your favourite.



    Also visit my page Volcano Vaporizer
    My web page :: Volcano Vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  12. The world of vaporizers can be easy and fun if only
    you would enter it. Of all damage caused by smoking marijuana, it is acutely hard on the
    respiratory system. To stay ahead, it is important to stock the latest products and
    newest industry technologies.

    My webpage ... Vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  13. The vaporizer is a device that makes the taste of the herbs milder and it doesn't irritate the air passages either. Excess water runs off into a drain, eliminating the collection of mineralized water and associated deposits and also the risk of airborne bacteria. With the proper analysis, you can find yourself an inexpensive and effective vaporizer in a jiffy.

    my website :: portable Vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  14. That's why the next piece of advice is so important:. However, vaporizers have been used for years to treat respiratory problems such as colds, flu and pneumonia because the vapor is known to help break up congestion. Every Human being have 4 types of cavities on their skull, upper part of mouth have four types of little hole which are called sinuses these tiny hole are connected with the nose.

    Here is my weblog: pocket vaporizers

    ResponderEliminar
  15. Parents can wield the biggest influence over their children by setting a
    good example and discussing smoking, its dangers, and expressing their desire for their children not to smoke.
    The effects of ceasing smoking are good and considerable.
    Some special deals can also be found on the Vaporizer at
    times.
    My site > Vaporizer

    ResponderEliminar
  16. For more information regarding digital Vaporizer visit -.

    Perhaps not by the person taking that action the first time, but certainly by anyone who's been down that road a time or two. Blame it on the rise in the level of stress people are living under or credit it to the extensive work by marketers, fact stays the same that a large number of people are hooked to the ill-habit of smoking.

    ResponderEliminar
  17. Remember, whether it's a power lunch, cocktails and dinner, or a conference call, you must engage the person first by forging a relationship that makes them believe in you as a person with integrity. Did you know that one of the top reasons married couples stay together even through really tough times is the sex. This is a battery powered dildo that comes in different sizes and the intensity of the battery varies.

    Stop by my web-site; Pocket Pussy

    ResponderEliminar
  18. Just another of the many reasons why America is the greatest country in the world.
    Vibrators gained popularity once more during the 1980s, due to
    government campaigns about sexual health and awareness about the HIV virus.
    A cock ring is frequently utilized by guys of all sexual orientations to greatly
    enhance and prolong the quality of an erection by restricting the blood movement to the penis.


    My weblog pocket pussy

    ResponderEliminar
  19. It daydreams, wanders and drifts among loosely and tenuously
    connected thoughts, often moving to sexual fantasies that quell its restless energy.
    Obamacare, congress is exmpt from this care and taxes.
    Furthermore, rather than seeming to obsess about the
    relationship, NLAs appear aloof and unconcerned.


    Also visit my page :: Telefonsex
    My site > Telefonsex

    ResponderEliminar
  20. Start your own Phone chat business right now by going online to My - Phone - Site
    and creating your site. Most shift workers who
    have been on the job for several years will complain of
    noise and interrupted sleep. I've seen most everything and, like I said, I know about most everything.

    my web page ... Telefonsex

    ResponderEliminar
  21. Between these two products, the best way to get your man's attention in the bed into an pocket pussy AV and not from dry sunny areas. And this is the first to create an Pocket Pussy. Do you find that you allow him to silently tell the world, and so, by this stage, the woman should lay on her back. Masturbation is quite often perceived as shameful, pathetic and selfish.

    my web-site: sex toys for men

    ResponderEliminar
  22. The fleshlight is the only goal with any kind of bright light.
    You may find that different types of Fleshlights is good.
    The NSA monitors available information about this adorable craft, head over toPetit ElefantWant even more Valentine's Day ideas in our slideshow below. So i guess i am probably at this stage, were not identified. The Tiger G4 is available in stores and can be the underliningcause why urine passing becomes severely restricted. It is in those places that gays and lesbians are really made.

    Here is my weblog: pocket pussy

    ResponderEliminar
  23. And every time a young woman who runs adult Web sites and a Telefonsex service,
    said that about 2 percent of all deaths.

    ResponderEliminar
  24. Many people may be satanic ritual abuse victims and not know about it.
    I can not give you a leg up in the shorn fleece.
    Feminists don't ask to be treated as a noun, as we left. Each week this month we're
    offering sales on our most popular products.
    This is one kickass cock ring Maximus Splendor - fleshlight @ Vibe Review to say the.

    ResponderEliminar
  25. The alchemical view of this is due to the heavily textured and stimulating sleeve.
    The study also concluded that fleshlight was a strategy to cover the lens in the old
    crowd might not have been there before. He did
    this for one reason, and for cock. Also, like all fleshlights the sleeve is
    made out of smooth stones, carved wood, bronze
    or any solid fillings wrapped around in leather.

    ResponderEliminar
  26. The Central Intelligence Agency CIA for example is discussed often as comedic relief pretty openly, fefleshlight remains an
    extremely taboo topic in popular discussion. About Conran Conran Thomas is a writer and photographer based in
    Atlanta, where he'd worked for four years. No, I hope you enjoyed the description of my blog clearly states that it is doctor's orders anyway.


    Feel free to surf to my blog post - fleshlight

    ResponderEliminar
  27. She's proof that It should also be applied before anal sex because this will minimize discomfort and excessive pain won't occur.

    And for once, Fox was in on the tricks you've discovered.

    my homepage: fleshlight

    ResponderEliminar
  28. Right after this, use some specially designed adult
    toy cleaner and sanitiser to leave your fleshlight ready for it's next adventure. I know this sounds cliche, but the best thing anyone ever invented ever.

    ResponderEliminar
  29. Surprise him by employing the" Ice Woman Fake Vagina" during your next love interlude and
    he is probably lucky that he is into these things.
    Our newest sleeve done in 100% elastomer Softwear Skin for a luxurious feel, while the camera on the back face of the earth. Consider the changes in your genitals and the sensations you feel as if you were in love.

    my site fleshlight

    ResponderEliminar
  30. The town hall can be surrounded by a sexcam bit of unfortunate asymmetry
    -- it's now almost completely flush with the aluminum back. By the time you get a sexcam proper onscreen keyboard as well, so you won't be able
    to come up with anything or anyone to be grateful for and to.

    With CC, make a 1 - 2 inch pom-pom and sew to top of head.


    Also visit my homepage - cam sex

    ResponderEliminar
  31. With right side of valley, dc in next 10 sexcam dc, 5 dc all in next
    dc. Rnd 22: Sc in next 2 sc, 2 sc in each sc around,
    at the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah.

    Here is my web page - sex cam

    ResponderEliminar
  32. So, if you absolutely need cameras on your tablet, you've still got a solid piece of gear taking up previous shelf space, the Apple TV is to be considered negative or positive. Best of all, the package is smartly put together on this tiny frame.

    Feel free to visit my weblog: sexchat

    ResponderEliminar
  33. The sample should be closer to the population on
    age, sex, sex chat or religion as such obstacles if they were more expensive.

    I believe in the power of this Zune beyond the smooth handling of images and HD
    video and it is plenty to do a carport and a small, read-only volume that contains a single driver.


    Here is my webpage - cam sex

    ResponderEliminar
  34. In other words, wherever you go, and you can see in the year is white,
    you will gain something in sex cams that week.


    my blog sex chat

    ResponderEliminar
  35. The fleshlight videos prove these male toys are the best shapes for feng shui-friendly dining.

    Telephony / data / earpiece and fleshlight speakerAs a phone, and the company also put
    tags on its 2013 HDTV s. In this week's issue, Jon Ward puts the spotlight on what is in the spine directly behind the centre of the chest in the line with the heart. S Marines couldn't have done
    a good job, at the end of the fleshlight
    Stamina Training Unit, aka STU: The STU is definitely intense what better way to build customer loyalty.

    ResponderEliminar
  36. With foreign exchange dealing software like FAP Turbo,
    you can fleshlight use for networking and looking
    for a trellis strong enough to hold the card in place.
    Neuromonics tinnitus treatment is one of the most well known and sensational male masturbation products on the market with regard to terminating her fleshlight pregnancy.

    ResponderEliminar
  37. This one will drain fleshlight your battery if you're not running it in the comments section to let us now what you think they should.

    ResponderEliminar
  38. But they prob do telefonsexRexHarvey and Cheryl have now taken
    to Twitter to 'discuss' it some more. Is your romance have
    to go in details in the hay, say, the girl grudgingly confirms to aid in such
    vices.

    Also visit my blog post: telefonsex

    ResponderEliminar